Regulations for the Degree of Bachelor of Dental Surgery (B.D.S)
Requirements:
 
B.D.S. Course Requirements
   
The Dental students have to attend lectures, demonstrations, Pre-Clinical and laboratory training etc., in the following subjects:-
   
  • Anatomy & Histology, Physiology & Bio-Chemistry, Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Pathology & Microbiology, Medicine and Surgery.
  • Dental Materials and Technology, Oral Anatomy, Oral Physiology, Tooth Morphology & Histology, Oral Pathology and Oral Microbiology, Oral Diagnosis, Oral Medicines, Prosthetics, Crown and Bridge Work, Operative/Restorative / Conservative Dentistry, Endodontics, Periodontology Pedodontics, Community Dentistry, Orthodontics and Radiology, Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Anaesthesia, Forensic Dentistry & Toxicology Medico-Dental Ethics and Dental Practice Management.
Each of the above subjects should be placed either in the charge of a Professor or Associate Professor or when a Professor or Associate Professor is not available an Assistant Professor in the relevant subject and the qualification of the teacher in charge should conform with the conditions laid down by the Pakistan Medical & Dental Council.

Each Professor, Associate or Assistant Professor should be assisted by demonstrators/Lecturers. The ratio of Demonstrators/Lecturers and students shall be as laid down by PM& DC (see Annexure-I)
   
Requirements For the Clinical Training in Teaching Dental Hospitals
   
The following are the minimum requirements of clinical works to be completed in Teaching Dental Hospitals during the course of studies for the B.D.S. degree by every student before his/her name is sent to the University for the Final B.D.S. Examination:-
   
 
  Oral Prophylaxis 40 Cases
  Periodontal Surgery 5 Cases
  Extractions under local anesthesia 200 Cases
  Extractions under general anesthesia(Assistance) 5 Cases  
  Fractures of Jaws (Assistance/observe) 5 Cases
  Complete dentures (Upper & lower)  6 Cases  
  Cast Partial Denture(Assistance) 2 Cases  
  Partial dentures (Acrylic) 12  Dentures
  Amalgam Fillings, one surface 75  Cases
  Amalgam Fillings,2-3 surfaces 25  Cases
  Silicate Fillings  25  Cases
  Composite Fillings 25  Cases
  Single-Rooted RCT( with or without surgery)  10 Cases
  Multi-Rooted RCT( with or without surgery) (Assistance) 5 Cases  
  Metal Inlays(Assistance) 5 Cases
  Porcelain Crowns fused to metal (Assistance) 2 Cases
  Porcelain Crowns(Assistance) 2 Cases
  Metal Bridge fixed to Acrylic facing(Assistance) 2 Cases
  Metall Bridge fixed to porcelain (Assistance) 2 Cases
  Temporary Crowns (Acrylic) 2 Cases
  Orthodontic Evaluation and Rx planning 5 Cases 
  Assistant in fixed orthodontic 2 Cases
   
Clinical instructions should be provided in General Medical Surgical Wards as well as in Operation Theatres. The institution should have its own department of medicine and surgery.

The Dental Institutions should have modern Teaching Dental Hospitals with very well equipped clinics and laboratories as well as lecture and demonstration rooms provided with audio visual aids. There should be at least 1.5 Chairs and Units for every dental student admitted.

Each Teaching Dental Hospital should have a maxillofacial unit with facilities for inpatients and operation theatre as well as paramedical staff. It should have minimum of 5 males, 5 females and 2 children beds in each Unit.

Each Department should have a separate Demonstration Clinic Laboratory according to requirement. Each institute should have a good library of books and journals on Dentistry and the allied subjects as well as Dental Museum. Each laboratory should be large enough to provide training up to 25 students.

A separate department of Radiology in the Dental Hospital be set up. It should be well equipped for intra-oral and extra-oral Radiography and Cephlometrics and Panorex X-Rays. It should be manned by Dental Radiologist and a trained Technician.
   
Minimum Requirements For Lectures, Demonstrations, Practicales/Clinical & Laboratory Hours For Various Subjects Of The B.D.S. Course Should be as Given in the Curriculum.
   
  1. Continuous internal assessment consists of appropriate evaluation at the end of each assignment, term, stage or course of the curriculum. Proper records of internal evaluations should be maintained, and the scores obtained in these tests should contribute 10% to the final total score of the candidates. Final university examination of each subject should contribute 90% to the total score, and the students should secure passing marks on the aggregate of the total marks.
  2. Any student who fails to pass the first professional BDS examination in four chances or does not avail the chance despite being eligible for examination shall cease to pursue further dental education in Pakistan.
  3. No student can be promoted to the higher classes unless he passes all the subjects of the previous classes.
  4. No student should be eligible for a university examination without having attended 75% of the lectures, demonstrations, tutorials, and practical or clinical work both in-patients and out-patients. 
  5. No grace marks should be allowed in any examination.
  6. There should be no more than two professional university examinations in a year.
  7. Written examinations should consists of MCQ's, short structured essays, (according to curriculum).
  8. External examiner should always be associated with local or internal examiners for written, oral and practical parts of the university examinations.
  9. Examiners for all subjects should be appointed from amongst the approved list of the Council. The number of external examiners and internal examiners shall be equal. External examiners should not be appointed for more than three consecutive years. The number of internal and external examiners should atleast be too far a group of 100(one hundred) students.
  10. The internal examiner for various subjects should be professor and head of department who have been involved in teaching of the class being examined for atleast 6 months and have delivered 50% of the total lectures. Second preference is Associate Professor/Assistant Professor who is involved in teaching of the class and posted there for one year. Third preference is a recognized professor of the subject. External examiner should also be a professor or Associate Professor of a recognized dental college or atleast an Assistant Professor with three years teaching experience in the relevant subject.
  11. Preparatory leave should not exceed one month in the first, second and third professional examination. 
  12. The gap between two consecutive papers should not be more than two days.
  13. The result of each examination should be declared within one month of the last practical examination.
   
S.No Subject Number of Hours for Lectures & Demonstration where applicable Number of Hours for Practical or Clinical work
1 Anatomy & Histology etc.                     100 300
2 Physiology & Bio-Chemistry     50 150
3 Science of Dental Material Dental Technology 50 200
4 Pakistan Studies 25 --
5 Islamic Studies 25 --
6 Pre-Clinical Prosthetics 40 260
7 Pre-Clinical Operative/ Restorative/Conservative Dentistry 30 260
8 Oral & Dental Anatomy, Oral Physiology Histology & Tooth Morphology 45 100
9 General & Dental Pharmacology and Therapeutics 60 100
10 General Pathology & Microbiology 50 150
11 Surgery 60 200
12 Medicine 60 200
13 Oral Diagnosis & Oral Medicine 65 100
14 Prosthetics (Full & Partial Dentures immediate Dentures). 70 250
15 Crown and Bridge work    
16 Oroficial Prosthetics    
17 Operative/Restorative/Conservative Dentistry.    
18 Endodontics 15 100
19 Periodontia 20 100
20 Pedodontics 15 100
21 Community Dentistry 15 30
22 Orthodontics 40 140

23

Radiology

15 20
24 Oral Surgery, Anaesthseia, Dental Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Medical/Dental Ethics & Dental Practice Management(40,20,5,2,3).                  70 330
   
Part-II
   
Regulations for the Professional B.D.S. Examinations
   
The following will be the distribution of the subjects. (The examinations will be written, oral and practical/clinical in each subject):-
   
First Professional B.D.S. Examination (At the end of first academic year)
   
S.No Subject Theory  Oral & Practical
       
1. Anatomy & Histology  75 Marks  75 Marks
2. Physiology & Bio-Chemistry  75 Marks  75 Marks
3. Sciences of Dental Material & Laboratory Techniques.  75 Marks  75 Marks
 
Note:
10 Marks are reserved for work done during first year for which certified accurate records must be kept. 15 marks will be for laboratory examination like mixing of Cement, Amalgams, Plaster of Paris etc., during practical examination and remaining 50 marks will be for oral examination. (Optional for each institute).
       
4 Pakistan Studies 25 Marks  
5 Islamic Studies 25 Marks  
       
Second Professional B.D.S. Examination (At the end of second academic year)
       
S.No Subject Theory  Oral & Practical
       
1. General Pathology & Microbiology  75 Marks  75 Marks
2. General & Dental Pharmacology and Therapeutics  75 Marks  75 Marks
3. Oral Anatomy, Histology, Physiology and tooth morphology  75 Marks  75 Marks
       
Note:
(Out of these, 15 marks will be reserved for pre-clinical Conservative Dentistry. Optional for each Institute).
       
Third Professional B.D.S. Examination (At the end of third academic year)
       
S.No Subject Theory  Oral & Practical
       
1. Medicine  75 Marks  75 Marks
2. Surgery  75 Marks  75 Marks
3. Oral Pathology, Oral Microbiology  75 Marks  75 Marks
4. Oral Diagnosis, Oral Medicine  75 Marks  75 Marks
       
Note:
Periodontology may be examined with Oral Medicine & Oral Pathology. In those institutions where Oral Medicine is being taught with Oral Pathology and not as a separate subject may continue to do so.
 
Final Professional B.D.S. Examination
       
S.No Subject Theory  Oral & Practical
       
1 Prosthetics and or including Crown & Bridge work (Crown & Bridge may be taught & ex- amined with prosthetic or operative Dentistry)    60 Marks  140 Marks
2 Orthodontia and Radiology (Radiology may be taught and examined with Orth or Operative)  60 Marks  140 Marks
3 Operative/Restorative/Conservative Dentistryincluding endodontics pedodontics and community dentistry. (In those institutions where periodontal is not taught and exa-mined in third Professional examination, it  may be taught and examined with operative).    60 Marks  140 Marks
4 Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Anaesthesia,  Forensic Medicine and Toxicology and Medico Dental Ethics and Dental Practice Management.   60 Marks  140 Marks
       
Notes:
  1. No student should ordinarily be signed up for any examination unless he/she has attended at least 75% of the lectures, demonstrations, tutorials, chairside tuition and the particles or clinical works. 
  2. The practical/clinical work of candidates in all examinations must be carefully evaluated.
  3. While questioning in the oral examination models, specimens, charts and slides should be used. The questions must not be restricted to any one part, but should cover the maximum portion of the syllabus.
  4. In all Professional Examinations, sufficient time should be assigned to practical work to test the thoroughness of candidate’s knowledge.
  5. The examiners in all the subjects be appointed from amongst those who are approved by the Council and are drawn from those who are or have been teaching their respective subjects; further that in each subject there should be an external examiner in each subject from other teaching institutes. The pass percentage in each subject (both in theory and oral and practical /clinical) will be 50%.
  6. The internal and External Examiners will jointly conduct the clinical and oral examination of candidates and marks will be allotted by joint adjudication. The theory paper will also be set and assessed by the internal and External Examiners. To be fair both to the subject and to the students being assessed a variety of methods of assessment, may therefore, need to be employed.
  7. The Examiner in assessing the performance should take into account the duly attested records of the work done by the candidates through out their courses of study in the subjects of the examination.
       
Part-III
   
Bachlor of Dental Surgery (B.D.S.) Courses
   
First Professional B.D.S. Course:
   
(i) Anatomy, Neuro-anatomy, Histology and Embryology  (400 Hours including lectures, demonstrations and practical).
  Anatomy Introduction: Detailed Anatomy and Osteology of Head and Neck. Gross Anatomy of Thorax, Abdomen and Extremities. 
  Gross Anatomy: General knowledge of Anatomy,  structure varieties of joints of the body detailed knowledge of the tempromandibular, laryngeal and spinal cord joints.
  Muscless - General knowledge of the muscles of the skeleton in relation to movements of joints. Detailed  knowledge of the muscles of the head and neck; specially those of expression, apprehension, mastication, deglutition and respiration.
  Alimentary   System- General knowledge of the digestive and excretory system with particular attention to mouth, pharynx and associated parts.
  Circulatory  System- General knowledge of the anatomy of the heart, main blood vessels and lymphatics; and detailed knowledge of lymphatic system of the head and neck.
(ii) Respiratory System-General knowledge of the Anatomy of air passages and other structures concerned respiration.
  Neuro-Anatomy: General description of the Anatomy of Brain, Spinal cord and detailed knowledge of the Cranial and spinal nerves. Subject matter is integrated and presented from the disciplines of Neuro Anatomy, Neuro Physiology, Neuro-pathology and clinical-neurology.
 

General Anatomy of the Viscera:Anatomical knowledge of the special sense organs and ductless Glands.

Growth and Development:Introduction to prenatal embryological development and postnatal growth and development of cranio facial complex.

Practical Anatomy:Dissection in detail of  Head and neck; Thorax and Abdomen and extremities in general. Study of their osteology together with demonstrations on the main point of dissected out abdomen. This   includes demonstrations on Models and dissected parts.

Histology:The microscopic and submicroscopic structures of human cells, tissues and organs are discussed with particular emphasis on functional correlates. The capacities of cells, tissues and organs for growth and repair in the   adult are discussed and some principles of cell and molecular biology are introduced, lectures and laboratory studies of prepared microscopic slides.

Physiology including Biochemistry: (200 Hours including lectures, demonstrations and practical)

Physiology:The human body as whole with special reference to the application of physiology in dentistry and comprising the following:-  

  1. Blood structure, composition and function; arterial and venous blood, Coagulation.
  2. Circulation-Structure and function of the heart and blood vessels. Mechanism of circulation of blood
  3. Systemic, pulmonary and portal; blood pressure and pulse. Influence of vagues and sympathetic
  4. Lymphatic System Structure and functional, lymph glands and lymphoid tissue.
  5. Respiration: Structure of lungs and air passages, thorax and its muscles, mechanism of respiration. Nervous Control.Chemical changes in blood and air. Interchange of gases. Sings and effects of failures. Influence of respiration on circulation.
  6. Alimentation- Salivery, Gastric and intestinal digestion. General structure of  Alimentary canal and glands associated with it. Muscular and nervous mechanism of mastication, deglutition, peristalsis, vomiting, defaecation. Composition and function of various secretions. Nutrition-Varieties and chemistry of food, their digestion, absorption and assimilation. Total amount needed; secretions and excretions. Functions of liver. Glycogen. General metabolism. Ductless glands. Kidneys and Urinary Organs-General Structure and functions of kidneys, Physical character, quantity, reaction specific gravity and composition of urine, sources of its principal constituents. Contractile Tissues-voluntary and involuntary muscles Structure, mode of action and  relation-to nerves. Tetanus, tone and rigor. Nervous System.
  7. General plan of the cerebrospinal and sympathetic nervous system, nerve center and their function. Structure and function of nerve fibers and cells. Various function of nerves.
  8. Special Senses-Elementary knowledge of structure and physiology of the special sense organs.
  9. Skin and its appendices, structure and functions of skin and its glands.
  10. Simple Chemical Physiology. Tests for proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
  11. Demonstration in Elementary Experimental physiology.

Biochemistry: The course should provide the students with a sound  knowledge on concepts of Biochemistry which are applied to Dental Science. The students should be conversant with the principles and clinical  application of Biochemistry, the structure and properties of aminoacids, peptides and proteins. An introduction to the nature of enzymes and enzymatic reactions, mineral metabolism whole body metabolism, biological carbohydrates and fats.  

   
(iii) Sciences of Dental Materials & Laboratory Techniques:(200 hours including lectures, demonstration and practical)
   
  Introduction: Aims and scope of the science of dental materials, structure and behavior of materials, important physical properties applicable to dental materials including their biological considerations.
  Gypsum products used in dentistry including investment materials with or without gypsum. Impression materials used in dentistry including casting materials.
 
Synthetic resins used in dentistry:
   
a General properties and physical characteristics.
b Resins as denture base materials, repair and reline materials, soft liners, tissues conditioners.
c Resins as restorative materials; unfilled and filled resin restorative materials, tissues sealant.
d Direct bonding cement materials.  
   
Metals and alloys: Their structure and behaviors some important physical properties:  
   
a Dental amalgam alloys.
b Dental casting gold alloys.
c Gold foil.
d Stainless steel chrome cobalt alloys.
   

Dental waxes including inlay casting wax: Gold inlay casting procedures; Preparation of die, wax pattern, spruing investing control of shrink compensation. Wax elimination, Casting machines, casting defects in castings.

Welding and soldering materials used: Dental Cements: Classification, composition manipulation properties and uses:Zinc Cements, cooper cements, Zino Oxide, eugenol cements, silicate cements, cavity liners, cavity  varnishes,  Resin Cement.
Dental porcelain including Porcelain fused to metal.
Procelain  Furnace and fusing.
Mechanics of tooth cuttings, burs and points.
Abrasives and polishing agents. Die & Counter die materials including electro-forming & elector polishing.
Practical and Demonstrations to be arranged in the manipulation of the more common materials.
 
Second Professional-B.D.S.
 
(i) General and Dental Pharmacology and Therapeutics:(160 Hours including lectures, demonstrations and practical).
   
  General Materia Medico-General Principles underlying pharmacy, pharmacology and therapeutics. Pharmaceutical terms and processes. Principles of administration of drugs; prescribing the drugs, their dosage and action. Drugs in general therapeuctics which have a special interest for the dental practitioner. Remedies other than drugs used for their. Therapeutic properties. Anaesthetics: Local and General Antibiotics, Antiseptics.
  Astringents. Analgesics. Anodynes. Antiacids. Antipyretic. Disinfectants. Emetics. Narcotics. Stimulants. Purgatives. Counter irritants. Bleaching agents. Dental Materia Medico. Pharmacology and therapeutics of drugs employed in Dental practice.  
  Demulcents, Astringents, Caustics, Mummifying agents, Obtundents, Drugs used for cavity toilet, Drugs used in Root canal Therapy, Drugs used  for the treatment of periodontal disease, Antibiotics, Drugs used for Oral hygiene.
   
(ii) General Pathology and Bacteriology:(200 Hours including lectures, demonstrations and practicals)
   
  General principles of Pathology and Bacteriology: The reaction of the body tissues to injury including repair in various tissues.
  Inflammation, its process, varieties and results, suppuration, ulceration, Degenerative processes. Gangrene Necrosis, Neoplasms and Cysts.
  Pathology of circulatory system and blood anaemia, Hyperaemia. Oedema. Thrombosis. Embolism. Infarction.
  The application of general principles of Pathology to mouth and surrounding tissues including bone and teeth. Congenital defects, Fractures of mandible, and maxilla. Inflammatory lesions of mouth, tongue jaws, tumours of lips, tongue, teeth, jaws salivary glands.
  General characters of micro-organism and their association with pathological processes.
  Micro-organisms, their classification, description and mode of action in disease.
  Pathogenic Bacteria, Fungi, Protozoa, Animal parasites, Infections,  Immunity.
  A general knowledge of pathology of diseases that effect blood, ductless glands, circulatory, respiratory, digestive  genito urinary, central and peripheral nervous systems, bone and joints.
  Various culture media and their methods of use: In practical classes, a familiarity is gained in the method of isolation, differentiation and staining reactions of the various diseases producing organisms.
   
(iii) Oral Anatomy, Physiology, Histology & Tooth Morphology:(145 Hours including lectures, demonstrations and practicals):
   
  Oral Anatomy: Microscopic and macroscopic anatomy of teeth, anatomy of the jaws and associated parts in man, bones, ligaments, muscles, nerves and vessels. Oral digestion: Saliva, salivary glands, masticution, deglutition, microscopic structure of dental tissue-Nasymths Membrans, enamel, dentine, cementum, pulp, gingina & periodontal tissues. Development of teeth and jaws. Eruption and resoption of teeth. Articulation of teeth and movement of mastication.
  Oral Histology: The microscope and its accessories, principles governing their use and methods of working with them. Histology and functions of various dental tissues. Both soft and hard, e.g., gingird, periodontal memberans, alveolar process, cementum, dentine, enamel, naysmyths membrane etc. The preparation of (i) hard tissues (ii) soft tissues (iii) combined hard and soft tissues.
  Histological methods: Declassification, fixing and hardening, microtomes and methods of cutting sections; staining elective, general and special.
  Clearing and mounting sections, preserving, Microscopic examination of (i) normal human oral and dental tissues (ii) pathological human oral & dental tissues.
  Tooth Morphology: Study of naked eye anatomy of the primary and permanent teeth. Study of the forms and dimensions of the teeth, their drawings and modeling.
   
Third Professional B.D.S
   
The following subjects shall be taught during the third year:
   
(i) Medicine:(260) hours including lectures, clinical demonstrations and attendance in Wards).
   
  Introduction: Aims of medicine, signs, symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of common or affections of the body with particular relation to pathological changes in teeth, gingiva and oral mucous membrane. Infection and immunity: Examples of acute and chronic infections Aids. Autoimmunity diseases, their prevention & management. Diseases of the Alimentary Tract: Stomatitis glossitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, gastritis, gastric ulcer, constipation, diarrhoea, Celliac, intestinal obstruction, appendicitis, diseases of the liver and gall Bladder. Diseases of the circulatory system including Blood and Heart Disorders of the respirstory system. Diseases of the central nervous system and  paripheral nerves. Cerebral Haemorrhage. Thrombosis, emblolism, facial paralysis, merualgia, neuritis, epillepsy, hysteria, coma.
  Disorders of the metabolism and endocrine glands: Blood  diseases  such as anemia, haemophilia, perpura, deficiency diseases such as scurvy and rickets. Practice in a recognized general hospital with clinical instructions in Medicine. This will also include clinical work in medical out-patient department as well as on indoor patients.
   
(ii) Surgery:(260 Hours including lectures, clinical demonstrations and attendance in operation theatres and Wards).
   
  The general principles of Surgery: Inflammation, varieties, termination and treatment.
  Infection: Acute and chronic abscesses, boils, carbuncle, sinus,fistula, ulceration, gangrene with special reference to oral cavity, cellulites, erysipelas, septicaemia, pyaemia, toxaemia, cancrum oris,tubersulosis, syphillis, actinomyces, anthrex, tetanus.
  Wounds: Complication, treatment, repair, asepsis and antiseptic measures with particular reference to oral cavity. Haemorrhage and its treatment, Haemophilia, syncope, shock, collapse.
  Cysts and New Growths: Their general consideration with special reference to those occurring in the oral cavity.
  Injury and Diseases pf Bone: Fractures of bones of face, periostitis,osteitis,osteomyelitis, caries, necrosis of bone. Injury and diseases of joints with special reference to tempromandibular joints.
  Diseases of the lymphatic glands specially of the neck. Diseases of  the mouth, lip, tongue, palate, tonsils, Diseases of the salivary glands. Diseases of thyroid glands, Head injuries. Infections and diseases of the pharynx, larynx, trachea, oesophagus including presence of foreign bodies in as much as they relate to diseases of the oral cavity.
  Nervous system: Injury to nerves, paralysis, special knowledge of affections, of the fifth and seventh cranial  nerves.
  Cengenital deformities of the head and neck with special reference to cleft plate and cleft-lip, Oral and dental sepsis and its relation to other systemic diseases.
  Anaesthetics: Local and general, a few lectures on their treatment, Elementary knowledge of surgical treatment by various modern methods.
  Information on modern technological aids like cat scans and ultra sounds.
  Practice in a recognized general hospital with clinical instruction in general surgery including work in surgical outdoor departments as well as on indoor patients. Practical instructions in administration of general and local anaesthesia, as well as attendance in the operating theatre.
   
(iii) Oral Pathology, Histopathology & Microbiology(165 Hours including lectures, demonstrations and practicals):
   
a Oral Pathology and Histopahtology: Disorders of dentition: Eruption disorders of primary and mixed dentition,  anodontia, abnormalities of teeth, structural defects.
  Nottling or Flourosis of teeth.
  Deposits on teeth: Dental stains, dental plaque salivery calculus, etiology, significance and treatment.
  Diseases of Periodentium: Classification, etiology, clinical features, histopathology, bacteriology. Diagnosis and treatment of dental caries: Incidence and etiology. Bacteriology. Role of diet and fluorides in the incidence of caries. Prophylaxis and treatment. Diseases of pulp: Classification, etiology, histopathology clinical features and treatment. Injury to teeth and jaws, Alveolar abscess: acute and chronic Osteemyelitis of jaws. Actinomy-Abrasion, attrition, erosion, tissues of oral cavity.
b Oral Microbiology: Classification, morphology and biology of    Microorganisms. Bacteriologic techniques. Staining methods.
  Culture and sensitivity test.
   
(iv) Oral Diagnosis, Oral Medicine (265 Hours including lectures, clinical demonstration and clinical work):
   
 

Introduction: Significance of Oral Medicine.
Oral Diagnosis: Histology, general health status, oral examination(including lips, oral muscosa floor of the mouth, teeth, gingiva, occlusion, salivary glands, jaw bones), examination of tempor-mandibular joint, roentgencological examinations laboratory aids, analysis. Patient management: Oral aspects of systemic diseases particularly of cardiovascular diseases.
Disorders of respiratory system, gastrointestinal, liver and kidneys and hormonal disturbances. Oral  aspects of puberty, menstruction, pregnancy and menopause. Special considerations for dental treatment of patients suffering from systemic disorders.
 Blood disorders and Dentist: Conditions requiring blood examination prior to oral surgery.
Oral Soft Tissue Lesions: Classification, Disorders of teeth and their treatment. Diseases of periodontium and their management. Diagnosis and treatment of pain in and around oral cavity.
Halitosis: Causes, diagnosis and therapy.
Disorders of the tongue: Clinical features, diagnosis and treatment.
Diseases of salivery glands: Management jaw bones disorders with special  reference to the oral aspects of osteodystrophies.
Disorders of Tempro-mandibular joint: Diagnosis and treatment.
Focal  infection: Significance, diagnosis and management of effected cases.  Methods of report writing.
Allergy in Dental Practice: Diagnosis and treatment of Anaphylactic shock.
Special consideration to the dental problems of children and of senior citizens. Nutrition and Oral Health Professional hazards in Dentistry.

Note:    Clinical training in Periodontology and Minor Oral Surgery is started during third year.

   
Final Professional Year B.D.S
   
The following subjects shall be taught during the final year B.D.S:
S.No Subject Lectures & Demonstration Demonstrations (hours) Number of Hours practical or clinical work
1 Prosthetics& Fixed Prosthodontics (Crown & Bridge Work).(Later named may be taught & examined in operative choice his with individual institutes)                  70 250
2 (a)Operative/Restorative/Conservative Dentistry   30 85
  (b)Periodontia(when not taught and examined in 3rd year) 20 100
  (c)Pedodontics 15 100
  (d)Endodontics 15 100
  (e)Community Dentistry 20 30
3 Orthodontia 40 140
  Radiology(or examined with operative) 15 20
4 Oral Surgery(40),Anaesthesia(20), Forensic Medicine, Toxicology (5), Management (3) 70 330
   
Prosthetics and Crown &  Bridge Work
   
Pre-Clinical Prosthetic  
   
Partial & complete dentures and general basis laboratory procedures to be  taught during the first tow years of the B.D.S course.
   
Introduction: Impressions and models, Boxing Materials, Model Materials and their manipulations casting impressions, trimming and finishing.
   
Construction of Base and Wax Rims: Importance of occlusal relationship,  different base plate materials and their manipulation.
Articulators: Articulation of models on plane line  articulators.
Setting up Procedures: Face forms, Tooth forms and alignment of natural teeth setting & alignment of artificial teeth.
Wax up and Flasking: Types of wax up, effects of denture contours on facial aesthetics, flasks and flasking. 
 
Elimination of Wax:
   
Denture Base Materials: Non-metallic-Acrylic resins, their properties and manipulation. Metallic Cold, Stainless steel, chrome cobalt alloys, comparison between  metallic and non-metallic denture base, their advantage and disadvantages.
Processing & Reflasking: A survey of possible defect caused during Packing and their method of  elimination. Remounting and rectification of occlusion and relationship. Finishing and Polishing.
Repairs: Fractures dentures with and without replacement of teeth.
Re-basing & Relining: Its indication and contra-indication.
   
Clinical Prosthetic  
   
a Complete Denture Prosthesis/Crown & Bridge Work:-
   
  Introduction and principles of retention of  complete dentures.
  Summary of the anatomy of  structures involved in the construction of complete dentures.
  Examination: General mouth conditions, mental analysis Impressions and models
  Tempro- mandibular articulations
  Registration of the jaw relations
  Selection of the teeth  
  Principles of set up and trial in the patient’s mouth.
  Insertion in the mouth
  Analysis of the patient’s complaints and their eradication, repair Indications for re-lining and re-basing
  Introduction to implant denture and root retained complete denture
   
b Partial Denture Prosthesis:  
   
 
Introduction, Examination, Impressions, Study Models.
Diagnosis, Design for support, retentions, stability and strength
Impression and Master Model
Surveying
Development of the design
Duplication of the models and working models
Wax Pattern
The Theory of Casting  
Investments and investing
Casting alloy. Attachment of artificial teeth
Insertion  
Repairs.
   
c  Immediate Denture Prosthesis:
   
  Indication
  Details of procedures
  Precaution during surgery. 
   
d Oro-Facial Prosthesis:
   
  General Introduction
  Aetiology, classification, general Principles and treatment.
   
e  Fixed Prosthodontics( Crown & Bridge Work):
   
  introduction ,Objective and fundamental requirements
  Examination Diagnosis and prognosis General indications of Crowns
  Steps of preparation of principle crown forms, their medication and
  laboratory technique:
  (I)       Jacket crowns(temporary Crown)   
  (II)     Post Crowns.
  (III)      Full veneer crown.   
  (IV)     Partial veneer crow on:
 
  (A) Anteriors.  
  (B) Posteriors
  Abutments: General principles of retention & support
  Choice of abutment Pontics
  Design of pontics
  Connectors and their design
  Examination
  Diagnosis
  Design
  Construction and installation of applicancies
  Repairs.
   
Operative/Restorative/Conservative Dentistry/Endodontics, Periodontia Rododontics Community Health Dentistry, Periodontia(if not examined in 3rd year)
   
a Operative/Restorative/Conservative Dentistry
   
  This course is divided into pre-clinical and clinical Operative Techniques.
  Pre-Clinical Operative Technique is taught during the second year on Phantom Heads.
  The course is :  
 
  1. Cavity preparation on extracted or artificial teeth according to the Black’s Classification.
  2. Class II cavity preparation in an extracted molar for silver amalgam restoration, matrix band application, amalgam plugging and finishing.
  3. Class III  cavity for gold foil: Class IV cavity for central inciser on a cuspid for self cure synthetic restoration, Class V cavity in a cuspid or an inciser for sillicate or composite restoration, M.O.D. Cavity in a premolar for inlay.
  4. Direct wax pattern of M.O.D. investing, casting and finishing of inlay.
  5. Cooper ring impression of M.O.D. investing, casting and finishing.
  6. Cavity toilet
 
Further Details of the Course are:
Examination and diagnosis: Reception of the patients in the dental chair, position of the operator, filling of the dental chart and sterilization of the instruments. Brief medical history and detailed dental examination technique.
Principles of conservative Dentistry: Rubber Dam and its application.
Cavity Preparation: Black’s classification of cavities, steps in cavity preparation, cavities for amalgam restoration,    for plastic restoration, for inlays.
Control of saliva during cavity preparation. Elimination of pain. Types and application of different matrices. Selection of  suitable restorative materials, Design of restoration.
Composition and manipulation of different filling materials such as gold foil,silver amalgam, silicate cement,  composite materials, porcelain, dental cement zinc-oxide and gutta percha. Inlays,gold and other metals: Cavity preparation, manipulation of casting waxes, investment, direct and indirect methods of obtaining wax pattern, investing, casting, finishing and cementing of inlays.
   
b Periodontia:
   
 
Examination and charting of periodontal cases
Periodental physiology, histology and pathology
Etiology with special reference to Bacterial Plaque
Classification.
Laboratory test, X-Ray examination
 Diagnosis Oral Prophylaxis
Occlusion & its importance.
Treatment: Treating periodontal disease on clinic patients including complete scaling, root planning, curettage, complete periodontal treatment, including flap & osseous surgery & equilibration.
   
c Pedodontics: Child management in dental practice:
   
 
Pedodontics: Child management in dental practice:
Oral diagnostic procedures
Reontgenology
Problem of pain and sedation
Oral habit, minor irregularities in developing dentition
Periodontal disease in children
injury to primary and permanent teeth
Treatment of handicapped children
 Diet and dental health
Hormonal factors
 Epidemiology of dental caries
Oral prophylaxis
conservative dentistry
Anesthesia in children dentistry.
   
d Endodontics:
   
  This course is designed to provide the student with a basic understanding of technical endodontics, endodontics, endodontic instruments and materials and the clinical procedures and principles involved in root canal treatment in order to develop the essential psychomotor skills necessary for the performance of fundamental endodontic operations of clinical patients.
  Clinical instructions and familiarization of the student with those principles of pulpal biology that are applicable to the prevention, detention and evaluation of clinical conditions involving the dental pulp and its contiguous tissues. Emphasis is placed on differential diagnosis and treatment planning of diseased tissues. Treatment of all forms and aspects of endodontics is carried out on clinical patients.
 
  1. General introduction and historical back ground of endodontics.
  2. History taking and patient assessment for endodontic therapy.
  3. Clinical diagnostic methods, radiographic interpretation and case selection for treatment.
  4. Review of pulpal inflamation and diseases of pulp & periapical tissues. 
  5. Pulp capping, Pulpotomy, Pulpectomy, Apexogenesic, apexification, procedures.  
  6. Rationale of endodontic treatment.
  7. Principle of Endodontics.  
  8.  Application of Rubber dam. Instruments and their sterilization.
  9. Anatomy & morphology of pulp cavity, location of orifices, its anamolies and necessary canals ete.  
  10. Management of traumatized and fractured anterior teeth: pre &  post endodontic emergencies.  
  11. Root resection (Apicetomy) as one stage operation(immediate) etc. Retograde technique, post operative sequelae and repair.  
  12. Management of periodontal-endodontic joint lesions;Hemisection   and radisectomy etc.  
  13. Replantation (intentional replantation indication,s contraindication  and techniques of endodontic implants.
   
e Community Health Dentistry:
   
  Role of the preventive dentistry in Community Health covering flourides  and water flouridation, pure water, drinking water, nutrition, care of the teeth of the child during all stages of growth right form infancy
  Role of dental health education in preventive dentistry, elaborate discussion covering all aspects.  
  Administration of Dental services, indices, Epidemiological surveys Clinical trials.  
   
Orthodontia & Radiology  
   
a Orthodontic:
   
 
Introduction, history, aims and objects, Morphological development of Head. Development of jaw bones, normal dentition, tempromandibular joints; and oral musculature Anatomy of facial muscles and bones  
Eruption of primary teeth, fixed and permanent dentition  
Development of normal occlusion, and its variations
Etiology of Dentofacial deformities 
Classification of Malocclusion  
Movement of teeth and their effects on periodontium and bones.  
Diagnosis: History, Intra oral and Extra oral examination, X-Ray  Cephalemetrios, Study models, Analysis.  
Treatment Planning: Psychological considerations of child patient.
Therapy: Interceptive and preventive measures, Serial extractions,  Frenectomy and other surgical aids. Functional therapy.
Appliance: Fixed, removable, active, functional and passive applicances. Indications, construction techniques and follow up procedures.
Oral prophylaxis during applicance therapy.
Causes of failure in Orthodontic treatment.
   
b Oral & Dental Radiology:
   
 
Introduction
Radiographic Anatomy and Pathology of teeth, jaws and T.M. joint.
Variations within normal limits and abnormalities
Different types of X-ray machines.  
Varieties of X-Ray Films: Extra oral, intra oral films, bite wing and occlusion films, Panorex & Orthopantomgaphs cephelometrics.
Films taking and exposure procedures
Film Developing Techniques
Indications & uses of radiology in Dentistry
Interpretation of films.
   
Oral & Maxill Ofacial Surgery & Anesthesia
   
Lectures and demonstrations comprising the following:-
   
a Diagnosis of diseases
   
 
Diagnosis of diseases, injuries and defects of jaws, associated structure and oral cavity, oral facial and neck infections: acute, chronic and specific infections, their surgical relationship, diagnosis and treatment. Traumatic injuries of teeth, alveolar processes jaws, facial skeleton and soft  tissue.
First aid management and treatment
Shock, Haemorrhage: Prevention and treatment
Surgical accidents, complications associated with oral surgery: avoidance and treatment
Diseases of salivary glands; diagnosis and treatment
 Disorders of tempromandibular joint; diagnosis and treatment
Diagnosis and treatment of oral and facial pain
Introduction to dental/surgical instruments
Sterilization
Preparation of patients for surgical procedure and their post-operative care                   
Exodontia: Simple and complicated extractions.
Oral Surgery for dental prosthesis, and as an aid for periodontal and orthodontic treatment 
Apicectomy
Surgical treatment of  cysts and non malignant tumorus of oral cavity                 
Oral malignancies, their diagnosis and management
Development of deformities of the jaws( prognathism micrognathia  Cleft lip,
Cleft plat, etc.)management and surgical treatment.
   
b Anaesthesia:
   
 
  1. Local Anaesthesia:
    Anatomical consideration for local anaesthesia, Anaesthetic solutions and their preparations indications. Armamentarium.
    Methods and techniques employed. 
    Complications, emergencies, their prevention and treatment.
  2. General Anaesthesia:
    Historical introduction, indications and contra indications, Preparation of the patient for general anaesthesia
    Stages of General Anaesthesia.
    Analgesia: Analgesic and techniques of administration.
    Anaesthetic Agents
    Apparatuses used for general anaesthesia
    Techniques for administration of general anaesthesia, inhalation and intravenous anaesthesia
    Post-operative care
    Complications, emergencies, prevention and treatment.
c Law, Dental Forensic Medicine and Toxicology.
   
d Medico-Dental Ethics.
   
e Dental Practice management.
   
Scale Of Teachers
   
No.of Teachers in Various Categories from Lecturer to Professor in Different Subjects of Dentistry in Dental Sections/Colleges.
   
Dental Materials and Dental Technology(Laboratory Techniques), Oral Anatomy & Physiology, Oral Pathology.
   
Designation Staff Required
  Upto 50 Admission 51-100 Admission
Professor 1 1
Associate Professor/ Assistant Professor 1 1
Lecturer/Demonstrator 3 6
 
Clinical Subjects:
     
Oral Surgery, Operative/Restorative/Conservative Dentistry, Prosthetics, Orthodontia, Periodontia, Oral Medicine, Preventive Dentistry, Anaesthesia.
     
Designation Staff Required
  Upto 50 Admission 51-100 Admission
Professor 1 1
Associate Professor 1 1
Associate Professor 1 1
Senior Registrar 1 2
Lecturer/Demonstrator 5 7
Registrar 1 2
     
*Only in the institution where the Department  is in existence.
     
Para-Medical Staff    
       
(a) Dental Technicians for Prosthetic Lab: Crown Bridge
Lab:Orthodontia Lab:  Cast-Oartial Denture Lab:
4 6
(b) Laboratory Assistant for Oral Pathology Lab: 3 4
(c) Dental Radiographer  2 3
(d) Photographer 1 1
(e) Audio-Visual Projectionists 2 2
   
House Job
   
A house job training will be mandatory for all dental graduates. House job should be of one year duration with rotational duties in all the four disciplines of the dentistry i.e. (Oral Surgery, Prosthetic, Orthodontic and Operative Dentistry). 100% arrangements for the paid house job to the fresh dental graduates will be the responsibility of the institutions where the students are trained.
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